Cybersecurity is the protection of systems from damage or misuse of digital information.
Experts distinguish the following categories of cybersecurity:
Digital cybersecurity of networks. Everything related to account data and passwords.
Cybersecurity of applications. Protection of devices from malicious software.
Cybersecurity of information. More specifically, its confidentiality and integrity during transmission and storage.
Operational cybersecurity. About managing access to data and defining the rules by which information will be stored and transmitted.
Disaster recovery. About advance planning of actions in case of a cyber attack and loss of access to data.
Cybersecurity of critical infrastructure. Ensuring the cybersecurity of healthcare systems, power grids, and water supply.
Cybersecurity of end-user devices. Data protection in cloud storage, on wireless and mobile devices.
User training. Transfer of tools and knowledge on the basics of cybersecurity.
Types of cyber threats
Cybersecurity technologies are used to combat cybercrimes, cyber attacks and cyberterrorism.
Cybercrime is an action aimed at the misuse of the network, device and user information. Most often, the criminal’s goals are obtaining private data and blackmail.
A cyberattack is an attempt to gain access to a data warehouse in order to collect and use or destroy information.
Cyberterrorism is a set of actions that threaten the lives of individuals and society or infrastructure facilities. The purpose of cyberterrorism is intimidation, blackmail or provocation of conflict.
Cyberterrorism, like cyberattack, refers to political crimes.
To gain access to systems and data carriers, attackers use different tools. Read more about each one below.
Malware is the most common way to harm a system or computer. Such programs get to the device when downloading applications from unverified sources and when clicking on questionable links.
There are several types of malware:
Viruses. Programs that can be embedded in the code of applications and files. They copy themselves for distribution. Viruses disrupt applications, delete data, and disable the system.
Spyware. Programs for tracking user actions and collecting data about him. Through spyware, fraudsters gain access to bank accounts, browser history and other confidential information.
Ransomware programs. With their help, criminals damage and encrypt data. For the return of access to the files, the scammers demand a ransom.
Adware. The danger of such programs is that they can not only show unwanted ads, but also collect data about user actions and redirect it to malicious sites.
Botnets. They are a network of carriers with malware installed. Botnets are used for DDoS attacks, spam mailings, installation of spyware.